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Oracle Solaris Operating System Oracle Solaris 11 - Cloud Computing Oracle SPARC/Solaris - Changes in the Market
Oracle Solaris and Red Hat Linux Enterprise - Commentary SYS-ED Training Service Linux Operating System to Cloud Computing
Emerging Trend: Oracle Solaris to Red Hat Linux Functional Equivalence: Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Solaris Solaris and Red Hat Linux Training Programs
Copyright acknowledgement    
Oracle Corporation Infrastructure Strategies

In 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems hardware and software: Solaris operating system, MySQL database, Java programming language, and SPARC hardware - servers and storage systems. The Oracle Corporation's stated strategy is to become an end-to-end service provider for corporate and public sector clients. Oracle has been emphasizing that its software will simplify the development, management, and monitoring of service oriented architecture while delivering performance and scalability. In conjunction with additional acquisitions, Coherence Tangosol software is being used to provide value-based application performance to distributed and frequently accessed data. Tangosol Data Grid is an enabler for the use of XPT: Extreme Transaction Processing in financial services, telecommunications, travel, and logistics industries. Sun Microsystems developed and positioned Solaris-UNIX as a base operating system platform and front end for scalable databases, web servers, middleware, and virtual machines to compete with IBM mainframe operating systems - z/OS, z/VSE, and z/VM. In terms of reliability and service, Solaris is highly rated.

Oracle Corporation has extended the featureset and made enhancements to the Solaris 11 operating system to support virtualization, isolation of workloads, and network virtualization for provisioning VM: virtual machine deployment. The secure-by-default features for startup, role-based root access, phone-home automatic reporting and auditing have been implemented to support recurring cloud deployments. The Solaris 11 release is integrated in the Oracle software environment: 1- Java programming language 2- Oracle VM 3- Oracle applications  4- Oracle WebLogic  5- Oracle Fusion middleware  6- Oracle Database 11g products.


Solaris 11 runs on Dell and other x86 hardware. However, Oracle Corporation provides advantages and performance improvements with running Solaris on its SPARC hardware.

Solaris is a component in the Oracle Corporation SOA: service oriented architecture strategy and development platform roadmap. Solaris Cluster extends Solaris virtualization technologies and provides support for Oracle applications and databases. In addition to managing resources such as load balancing and global virtual IP addresses, security and networking capabilities have been improved in deploying active applications through Solaris Cluster scalable data services. The system and volume management choices are included with replication modules.

Oracle Solaris 11 - Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is central to the Oracle Corporation strategy for delivering expanded services and software offerings to its clients: public, private, and hybrid clouds. Oracle hardware and software infrastructure provides scalability, data addressing, storage subsystems, and performance. Management tools deploy and provision systems and services to meet elastic requirements.

Oracle Solaris 11 supports and enables software, infrastructure, and platform as a service.

SaaS: Software as a Service is a consumer-facing cloud computing system which provides websites that deliver bi-directional services and digital content.

IaaS: Infrastructure as a Service virtualizes a server into the cloud. The operating environment is moved into the cloud: operating system, database software, applications and data. Access is through Internet connectivity.

PaaS: Platform as a Service is the operating system or database is built to run directly in a cloud environment.

This cloud strategy brings challenges and risks: applications need to scale for handling orders of magnitude, the inability to manage peak activity means a loss of service and revenue, and dislocation to customers, and security must be built in at each level to ensure that applications and services run with integrity and safely.

Solaris Operating System Design Oracle Hardware and Software Stack
Solaris Cloud Computing Integrated Oracle Hardware and Software

The Oracle Solaris cloud deployments are implemented using default features for startup, role-based root access, automatic reporting, and auditing. Oracle Solaris 11 integrates Oracle Solaris Zones, dynamic resource management, and network bandwidth control. Computing resources can be divided into multiple environments that can be provisioned and migrated. As cloud deployments scale, the assumption is that Oracle customers will repeatedly deploy multiple VMs.

The Solaris operating system provides virtualization for an elastic cloud infrastructure which can expand and contract on demand while providing services.

Tools - Software Installation and Deployment Controls file access and protects system resources with integrated, multilevel security through immutable zones, data link protection, role-based administration, and hardware-accelerated encryption for on-disk and network data.
High-availability Cloud applications and services are deployed, configured, and updated with the AI: Automated Installer and IP: Image Packaging System controls updates.
Security - Application Stack Intelligent zone migration and remote and local clustering keep applications running even in the event of a hardware failure.
Monitoring and Usage Oracle Enterprise Manager Ops Center provides visibility into cloud computing resource availability and the ability to track services consumption and expense. It is used to manage the hardware and software stack: firmware, operating systems, virtual machines, servers, storage, and networking components.

The Solaris operating system uses the ZFS file system for storing up to 256 quadrillion ZB: Zetabytes without media limits. The file system space automatically is allocated across storage devices. The advantages with the ZFS file system include: 1- root and boot environments 2- integrated volume management 3- built-in compression 4- data integrity with copy-on-write and RAID-Z 5- Tiered storage with Flash. 6- Snapshot, clone, and rollback for backup, restore, and migration.

Oracle SPARC / Solaris - Changes in the Market

The consensus is that Oracle Corporation will be evaluating UNIX-Solaris and its investment in the Oracle-Sun Microsystems hardware platform in relation to the broad industry support for specialized utilization of Linux-variants and its own cloud and mobile computing strategies. Oracle has been investing in both UNIX-Solaris and Linux operating systems. By contributing to and supporting the open source Linux operating system base code, Oracle Corporation is positioning its hardware architecture to meet emerging and new client computing requirements in multiple ways. The capability to migrate from Solaris to Linux or have both operating systems coexist on a hardware platform removes issues associated with endianness and provides an economic incentive both to continue licensing the Oracle database and develop applications with Oracle software. Failure to account for a varying endianness across architectures when writing code for mixed platforms leads to failures and bugs that can be difficult to detect. A big-endian machine stores the most significant byte first; a little-endian machine stores the least significant byte first. In these standard forms, the bytes remain ordered by significance. Mixed-endian and middle-endian forms also are possible where the ordering of bytes within a 16-bit word can be different from the ordering of 16-bit words within a 32-bit word. Endianness is important as a low-level attribute of a particular data format. The order in which the two bytes of a UCS-2 character are stored in memory is of considerable importance in network programming where two computers with different byte orders may be communicating with each other.

In the late third quarter of 2017, Oracle Corporation laid off a high percentage of its Solaris employees. This was the second termination of hardware staff and Solaris engineering support personnel. Oracle has changed its release roadmap for Solaris; removing Solaris 12 and added only a "Solaris" with security patches and upgrades. The decline of both the Solaris operating system and SPARC servers began under Sun Microsystems. Significant funding was spent on research and development for product improvement. However, data center operators opted for less expensive commodity hardware in combination with open source free-to-use Linux-variant operating systems. When Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems hardware and software, infrastructure-as-a-service and software-as-a-service clouds were compelling bottom line cost reasons for transitioning workloads to third parties such as Amazon Web Services with computing use on demand. Most cloud providers were not buying off-the-shelf servers such as SPARC for their own data centers; they either had them built to custom specifications. This further contributed to sales problems for SPARC and UNIX-Solaris; despite both having been highly rated for reliability and performance. Oracle had promised to provide support until 2034. Before Sun Microsystems was acquired by Oracle Corporation, it had released much of the Solaris operating system's code under an open source license as OpenSolaris. Although OpenSolaris terminated by Oracle; it was forked and released as OpenIndiana.

Several leading hardware and software companies have based their information technology operations on Linux and open source software. Accordingly, Oracle Corporation has been transitioning software to work on Linux-variant operating systems in order to adjust its strategy and respond to competition in the market.

Oracle Solaris and Red Hat Linux Enterprise - Commentary

Red Hat Enterprise Linux is open source software designed for large data centers and virtualization. It is acknowledged to be a stable platform for enterprise applications. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux, a typical implementation would be either a Fedora Core or CentOS deployment. Each version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux is supported for up to 10 years. Oracle Corporation - Solaris 11 contains a number of significant changes, including an installer that replaces JumpStart, new packaging, and a requirement to use the ZFS: Zetabye file system for root. Since the changes in Solaris 11 impact system management functionality, the impact on operational procedures can be substantial. The evaluation of Solaris 11 is a convenient juncture for evaluating whether to upgrade Solaris or consider an alternative operating system. 1

The Oracle business model is based on licenses, support, and maintenance agreements. For enterprises currently utilizing Oracle SPARC hardware and the Solaris operating system, there are reasons to consider migrating to Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Oracleís integrated hardware and software provide the greatest benefit when running Oracle software products and the requirement is to have a single point of purchase and support. However, Oracle customers in the past have expressed issues relating to indiscriminate cost increases and possible limitations on deployment options. There continues to be a wariness not to be locked into a single vendor and the Oracle roadmap. With open source software, organizational enterprise retains the ability to control software licensing costs by combining commercial distributions with an affiliated non-commercial software distribution.

The selection of an operating system for an information technology infrastructure has long-term implications. The selection process must take into account not only the featureset of the current operating system, but the ability for the operating system to enable and support business requirements. Reduced total cost of ownership, flexibility, scalability, and uncertainty regarding Oracle Corporationís long term commitment to the SPARC architecture and the Solaris operating system are all reasons for migrating to Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

SYS-ED Training Service: Solaris and Oracle Development Platform

When it comes to the Solaris operating system, there is a viable alternative to the training offered by Oracle Corporation. SYS-EDís Solaris and Oracle development platform courses teach and explain the new and transitional featureset in multiplatform and hybrid information technology. We provide multi-platform expertise in system administration, performance design, and application development for Fortune 1000 companies, government municipalities, and healthcare providers. 2

Industry Standard Curriculum

Solaris Oracle Database Platform Cloud Computing MySQL Linux-variants

Student Course Evaluations

Solaris Administration Solaris System Administration Solaris - System Administration UNIX Shell Programming Linux Fundamentals and Support

Programming Languages UNIX and Linux Demonstrated Excellence IBM MQ DB2

SYS-EDís Solaris operating system curriculum incorporates the experience of our staff with Sun Microsystems hardware, Oracle Corporation database, UNIX- and Linux-variants, and programming languages. A component of the SYS-ED training service is to configure a prototype environment which affords a client the opportunity to review benchmarks and assess processor migration and the costs associated with an implementation. Project specifications and client-specific exercises are incorporated into lesson plans. We refer to this premium training service as educational consultancy.

Oracle WebLogic Server Convergence Oracle Enterprise Database Apache Hadoop - Big Data and Scalable Databases Java Lightweight Frameworks Mobile Database Design and Implementation

In addition to teaching industry standard courses, SYS-ED staff and CETi technology partners have been evaluating benchmarks in the public domain and migration of the Oracle database to an Intel platform and assessing Oracle Corporation's efforts to make its existing product line work with: 1- open source Solaris, MYSQL, and Java 2- commercial WebLogic and Tangosol software 3- the longstanding Oracle product line. 3  This information selectively has been selectively incorporated into our courses and training programs. 


Specialized Training

Security, Load Balancing, and Networking

Our exercises demonstrate and teach:

  • how IPsec services can be used in combination with scalable data services to mitigate security constrained configurations.

  • managed failover of IPsec sessions for making node failure transparent to users with no new key negotiations after failover.

  • how in telecommunication environments the SCTP protocol can be used on the public network in combination with scalable data services.

  • the round-robin load-balancing scheme which remains effective as the number of requests and clients scales to a higher volume.

  • how cluster nodes in a scalable data service can initiate connections to a server outside of the cluster using the virtual IP address as the source IP address.


The SYS-ED training service provides a framework for organizations to implement operational strategies and return on investment associated with installing Solaris 10 and 11, database migration, and application development.

Few software or consulting firms, let alone training companies, have the multidisciplinary expertise that SYS-ED has with Solaris, Oracle database platform, IBM MQ middleware, and IBM DB2 database. If your organization has a requirement for Solaris training, contact Oracle University and review course subject matter and performance objectives. Then compare the quality and value of the Solaris training that SYS-ED offers.

Courseware for Teaching

SYS-EDís Solaris, UNIX, and Linux courseware is highly respected. The Computer Education Techniques knowledge base is a service for answering questions, inclusive of the research and validation of the accuracy of information in the public domain. Citation of source documentation and examples are used for providing answers to the questions. Content is selectively added to SYS-ED course hand-outs and training aids. SYS-ED's strategy is to have our courseware reviewed by the New York State Department of Education and serve as an alternative to NRV: Nationally Recognized Vendor curriculum.

Courseware - Oracle Platform
Solaris Operating System
Java Language
Oracle Database
Oracle Application Development - Legacy
WebLogic Server Platform
Red Hat Linux
Oracle Development Platform - Distance-learning Training Service

Oracle Development Platform
Specialized Training Experience
Industry Fact Sheet
Student Evaluations: Solaris, UNIX, and Linux
Testing and Validation Assessment - Optional

SOA: Service Oriented Architecture
Oracle SOA Suite
WebLogic Enterprise Web Services Development

Upon completion of a instructor-led course at the client location, it is standard policy to organize subject matter for future utilization in a web-based training infrastructure.

Distance-learning - UNIX and Linux Training Service Courseware_Teaching_and_Documentation_Support Oracle Development Platform
UNIX and Linux Distance-learning
Training Service
Client-specific Courseware Oracle and WebLogic
Training Services

Oracle Corporation Investment in Solaris and Linux Operating Systems
Solaris - UNIX Variant Training Services SYS-ED SYSED


Virtualization is central to the Oracle cloud computing model and its strategy for an integrated software environment. The CPU utilization and memory management in the Solaris Containers can support virtualized workloads. The Solaris operating system has been enhanced to provide a 1- Fully virtualizable network environment for more effective sharing of networking resources and increasing the scope for server consolidation projects. 2- Networking resource management capabilities which allow organizations to meet quality of service goals. 3- Efficient scalability as network load increases through a reduction in latency and increased throughput.

The Oracle Corporation resources being committed and the quality of the Solaris operating system code is in the process of being researched and updated. When complete the content will be updated and links placed back on the url.

Oracle - Hardware and Software Oracle WebLogic Server IBM MQ - SOA and Web Servicization IBM MQ - Industry Leading IBM Middleware

Linux Operating System to Cloud Computing

Open Source - Linux operating system kernel Cloud Computing Open_Source Software
Linux Cloud Computing Open Source Software

The independence of the Linux kernel and its inclusion in the GNU General Public License provides flexibility and alternative Linux-variant base operating system choices for implementation into an existing software infrastructure. Linux can be installed on x-86 desktop and servers, Sun Ultra Sparc, IBM Power Systems, HP Itanium, X64 AMD Opteron-based systems, and IBM mainframe systems, tablet PCs and smartphones. Migration to Linux will allow for operation with fewer CPUs and results in annual savings on software database licenses. There are Linux-variants which can be used on the same hardware platform as an existing UNIX base operating system. This can be a significant advantage when managing virtualization and logical partitioning across both UNIX and Linux operating system platforms.

GNU Shells and Utilities    Other Shells
and Utilities 
  X Window System 
Asynchronous I/O and Kernel Subsystem    Kernel I/O Subsystem    Ext3 File System 
Linux Kernel 

Public cloud services are being developed built using Linux in conjunction with other open source software. The Linux Foundation is a non-profit organization supported by the leading hardware and software companies for contributing and collaborating with the developer community to improve Linux operations and client software services. There have been a number of advancements in technology by hardware manufacturers - Hewlett-Packard, Dell, IBM, and Oracle, and cost-driven information technology services being marketed which use Linux deployments - Google, Amazon, and Twitter.

Oracle Corporation and Linux

The Oracle Corporation strategy includes a commitment to Linux and open source standards. The Ext3 File System ensures that the data guarded mode is stable and performance can be improved in the mainline Linux kernel. The Linux kernel has been improved in block I/O for utilizing the higher disk speeds: hardware virtualized timers, guest and hypervisor debugger and bugfixes, transcendent memory, SSL live migration, and xend locking. Oracle has participated in changes made to the XenAPIs and Windows Paravirtualized drivers. Xen configurations have been tested with Oracle workloads and OL kernels. The Xen Hypervisor is comprised of Xen's open source server software and an integrated web browser-based management console; the Oracle VM is free, scalable server virtualization software which supports Oracle and non-Oracle applications.

Linux Code and Enhancements

Oracle Corporation contributes to the development of enterprise-class capabilities of Linux and contributes code to the Linux community. There is a mode for the Ext3 journaled file system used by the Linux kernel. The data guarded mode maintains the security protections of dataordered mode without requiring all the dirty data on the file system to be written during a single fsync. The AIO: Asynchronous IO Kernel Subsystem replaces the existing asynchronous I/O AIO interface in the kernel with a AIO API. This kernel-based implementation is a single access point which allows most system calls to be asynchronous. The kernel I/O subsystem tuning supports the new generation of SSD: Solid State Disks which significantly increased the transfer rate. The NFS IPV6 code has been integrated into mainline for the Linux client; work continues on the server side.

Specialized Linux Training

UNIX and Linux - Introduction UNIX and Linux: Tools and Utilities UNIX and Linux: Server Management
UNIX and Linux: Optimization and Troubleshooting UNIX and Linux: Programming UNIX and Linux: Security

Linux Installation, Configuration, and Support Linux Client Administration Linux Server Installation and Configuration
Linux Server Management Linux Performance Monitoring and Tuning Linux Network Internals

UNIX and Linux: Korn Shell Programming UNIX, Linux, and Win32 Networks: Perl Programming Java in Linux

Emerging Trend: Oracle Solaris to Red Hat Linux

In order to reduce costs in the datacenter, information technology management is moving to commodity x86-based servers to replace legacy RISC servers. There can be advantages in migrating from Solaris to Red Hat Enterprise Linux including a reduction in TCO: Total Cost of Ownership and increased deployment options. Red Hat has reported that IBM has migrated 700 organizations from Solaris to Red Hat Linux.4

The emerging trends include:

  • Replacing RISC machines running Solaris and other UNIX distributions to x86-based blade servers running Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

  • Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux to on HP Proliant servers.

  • Replacing and migrating traditional UNIX workloads from Solaris to Linux for reduced operating costs and flexibility.

  • Migrating Solaris workloads to Red Hat Enterprise Linux: web server farms, web applications/portals, ERP systems, database applications, and homegrown applications.

The SYS-ED training service provides guidelines and best practices on using the IBM Migration Factory and moving enterprises from Oracle/Sun to IBM and Linux: server assessments, discovery tools, and workload optimization.

Function Red Hat Enterprise Linux Solaris Operating System
Package Management RPM Package Manager: Software bundled into installable RPM packages that help automate software management. SVR4 packages and IPS: Image Packaging System
Auto Installer Kickstart JumpStart
Logical Volume Manager LVM, LVM2, LVM2 supports snapshot capability SVM: Solaris Volume Manager
Software Updates Software Updater Solaris Update Manager
Software Update Management Red Hat Network and Red Hat Network Satellite Sun Connection / Oracle Enterprise xVM Operations Center for managing updates.
Free Software Package Repository EPL Sun Freeware and OpenSolaris Contrib pkg repository.
Init Scripts System V-style init scripts for starting, stopping, checking standalone services, etc. Pre Solaris 9 and Solaris legacy services.
General Administration Tools vmstat, top, iostat, and netstat vmstat, top, iostat, netstat
Military-grade Security SELinux | EAL Common Criteria Certified Trusted Solaris
Native Multipathing Included Included
Dynamic Tracing System Tap DTrace
Resource Management Resource Management Resource Manager
High Availability High Availability Add-on Solaris Cluster
File Systems ext2, ext3, ext4, ReiserFS, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, support for encrypted file systems. The ext4 is similar to ZFS; the ext4 is scalable to unlimited sub directions with a file system size of EB.
Development Tools A recompile can be performed using GNU tools on SPARC and then moved to Linux. There may be issues with the API when moving to Linux. Oracle Solaris DTrace Toolkit, GCC runtime libraries, gedit, memcached distributed object caching framework, NetBeans
Networking IPV4 and IPV6 support IPV4 and IPV6 support
Integrated Firewall Netfilter IPFilter
Cluster File System GFS2 in Resilient Storage Add-on CFS: Cluster File System in Solaris Cluster

Solaris and Red Hat Linux Training Programs
SYS-ED's training programs utilize the full complement of delivery medium: distance-learning, web-based, and technology driven classrooms. As part of conducting a training program, courseware is organized for utilization in courseware as a learning center. In order to accommodate employee workloads and staff in remote geographic locations, component courses can be scheduled over non-consecutive weeks utilizing a combination of classroom training and distance-learning. At the client's discretion, checklist of completed tasks, validation assessment, and a final examination can be utilized.

Solaris Operations and Network Administration Training Program

Solaris Base Program Duration
Distance-learning Service
Learning Paths
Solaris - UNIX
Technology Updates
UNIX - Solaris Administration
UNIX Programming

Teaching Models - Return on Investment

Teaching Models

Evaluate the Costs Associated with a Delivery Medium

Delivery Medium

Solaris 11: Operating System 4 days
Solaris System Administration 4 days
Solaris: Network Administration 4 days
Base Program Duration 12 days
Optional Course  
Solaris 11: New Features for IT personnel with UNIX experience. 2 days

Red Hat Linux Operations and Network Administration Training Program
Red Hat Linux Base Program Duration
Learning Paths
Linux-variant by Function
Technology Update
Red Hat Linux

Courseware for Teaching - UNIX- and Linux-variant Training
Courseware for Teaching

Web-based Training

Web-based Training

Red Hat Linux 4 days
Red Hat Linux System Administration 4 days
Red Hat Linux Network Administration 4 days

Base Program Duration

12 days
Optional Course
Red Hat Linux Essentials - For IT personnel without Linux experience. 5 days

Technology Exchange Websites

SYS-ED's websites compile, organize, and present software specific and established operational categorizations of information technology. They provide a framework for assessing knowledge transfer in a variety of delivery formats: web-based training, classroom instruction, technology updates, courseware, training aids, learning paths, and validation assessment.

Copyright Acknowlegement:

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation.
WebLogic is a registered trademark of BEA Systems and Oracle Corporation.
Java, MySQL, and Solaris are registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems and Oracle Corporation.

Sources, Christine Hall | Sep 05, 2017

Blog post from former Solaris kernel developer and one time Sun executive, Bryan Cantrill.

Footnote 1:
SYS-ED staff has reviewed: 1- presentation slides distributed by Oracle Corporation Solaris Core Technology Development in 2011 regarding Solaris Express 11: strategy versus actual implementation, new features, and base code. 2- Oracle Solaris 11: Built for Cloud, An Oracle White Paper, November 2011.

Footnote 2:
SYS-EDís core UNIX and Linux curriculum have been submitted to the New York State Department of Education - Bureau of Proprietary School Supervision for technical review and licensing.

Footnote 3:
Sources Transaction Processing Performance Council, and

Footnote 4:
White Paper: Red Hat Enterprise Linux - Migrate from Solaris with Confidence.

Footnote 5:
Functional Comparison Red Hat Linux Enterprise and Solaris is based upon reviewing information available on Red Hat, Inc. white papers and reporting by