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UNIX and Linux Operating Systems


Emergence of UNIX and Linux UNIX and Linux Server Operating Systems Linux in the Mainstream
Microsoft Software: Competition and Integration   Google Android and Chrome Operating Systems  UNIX and Linux Training by SYS-ED
Courseware for Teaching UNIX and Linux Training Programs UNIX and Linux Training Services

UNIX and Linux
Course Schedule

Web Servers

Android and Chrome are registered trademarks of Google Corporation.
Red Hat is a registered trademark of Red Hat, Inc.
Solaris is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems and Oracle Corporation.
SUSE is a registered trademark of Attachmate /Novell, Inc.

Ubuntu is a registered trademark of Canonical Ltd.
Tux, the Linux mascot, was created by Larry Ewing using the initial version of GIMP.

Courseware for Teaching - UNIX- and Linux-variant Training
Courseware for Teaching
Cloud Computing - Open Source and Interrelated IT Training Services
GSA Submission
Open source software for hybrid information technology


Commercial UNIX- and Open Source Linux- Variants
Emergence of UNIX and Linux

UNIX and Linux operating systems have emerged as a platform capable of supporting and being used on a variety of hardware architectures. Commercial, open source, and no-cost distributions of UNIX and Linux provide cost control and flexibility in long term planning. The first generations of the UNIX operating system in the early 1980's were used primarily as servers in business enterprise and as workstations in academic and engineering environments. It took years for UNIX to gain acceptance in commercial use and this breakthrough resulted from high reliability and price/performance advantages, not the availability of applications.


Ultimately, this led to broad adoption of RISC/UNIX systems. Both Hewlett-Packard and IBM arrived at the decision to develop and extend a UNIX-variant operating systems for utilization on their own proprietary hardware platforms. Sun Microsystems developed Solaris-UNIX to run on both its SPARC hardware and other types of hardware, including x86 servers and PCs. POSIX was developed to provide standardization across the UNIX-variants. Over the past decade, Linux deployments have to a significant degree been replacing UNIX in system infrastructure software. The Linux kernel is being used in the leading Linux-variant operating systems: Red Hat, SUSE, and Ubuntu.

IBM Corporation's strategy to extend its mainframe computing strengths in security and always-on availability makes extensive use of both UNIX and Linux. Improvements in performance and energy efficiency aside, the most significant change with the new IBM mainframe hardware is data center integration. This new design provides for blending tasks and parceling out parts of a complex application. The data and transaction is managed on the mainframe with the real-time processing performed by a UNIX or Linux computer system.

UNIX and Linux Server Operating Systems

All versions of UNIX combined - IBM AIX, HP-UX, and Oracle Solaris have approximately 10% of the market share. Marketing studies indicate that IBM's AIX UNIX is currently the most reliable and highest rated server operating system. Linux' market share now represents about 30% of the installed base. Linux overall reliability has improved substantially. The three leading distributions, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, SUSE Linux, and Ubuntu Linux, score high in reliability and have achieved near parity with UNIX distributions. Microsoft Windows Servers account for about 60% of the worldwide server operating system market. There is far less disparity now in the number and severity of unplanned outages and actual downtime that organization's experience on standard UNIX, Linux, and MS Windows platforms.1 CETi Technology Partners report that most organizations utilize commercial distributions in combination with free no cost distributions of Linux.

Linux in the Mainstream

The selection and utilization of the Linux operating system has resulted from 1- reliable code, 2- low cost, 3- enhancements to the x86 server, workstation, and laptop hardware. Linux has become a mainstream solution for supporting deployments of business-critical workloads and business-oriented applications across a variety of hardware architectures. The initial Linux operating system incrementally replaced the infrastructure workloads being performed by UNIX or MS Windows servers. Linux has a substantial and growing use as a base platform for servers, database, middleware, and web application services.

Operational infrastructure and client support requirements have led to implementations of Linux by leading hardware and software companies such as Amazon, eBay, Google, Motorola, and Twitter. These companies are also investing in Linux to develop cloud computing operations. Dell and Hewlett-Packard market Linux-based desktop and laptop computers. Hewlett-Packard also has invested in HP-Linux and has open-sourcing the Linux-based webOS mobile operating system. Application software providers and ISV: Independent Software Vendorís support the Linux platform and promote deployment.

Market studies project a steady growth for Linux; it is being driven by the reliability of Linux-variant server and workstation operating system code, data center virtualization, cloud computing operations, and software which allows Linux to run Microsoft applications. The shift in workloads to Linux operating system deployments will continue.

Microsoft Software: Competition and Integration

Microsoft has been in a longstanding competition for migrating UNIX to its MS Windows Server and Windows family operating systems. The Microsoft UNIX migration readily can be applied to migrating Linux-variant operating systems. Microsoft has extended the featureset of the Windows family operating system, Windows Server 2008/2012, SharePoint Server, and PowerShell for integration with the leading Linux-variants: Red Hat, SUSE, and Ubuntu. SUSE has been designated by Microsoft as its preferred Linux-variant. Linux administrators have started using MS Windows Server Group Policy to expedite deployments and patch installations on SUSE and other Linux-variant operating systems.

Google Android and Chrome Operating Systems

The immense growth of mobile computing devices - smartphones and tablets also is driving the adoption of the Linux operating system. Google Corporation has brought to market two Linux-based operating systems: Android and Chrome. The Google strategy is based upon the assumption that the operating systems address different markets: Android for mobile computing devices and Chrome for software as a service and cloud computing.

Google acquired the Android operating system from Android, Inc. It is a Linux-variant operating system for use on mobile computing devices; it is a major component in the Google Corporation strategy to provide a unified mobile world. Android is open source software and has been made available to third party smartphone hardware manufacturers. This approach has served to make Android the leading operating system for smartphones at the low to middle range of the market. Android also has been adopted as the base platform for specialized Amazon and Barnes and Noble tablet devices and e-readers. In 2011, Google acquired Motorola Mobility, a maker of Android smartphones and tablets. This provides Google with the patents and hardware manufacturing capability to emulate portions of the Apple business model by designing its own models and integrating the software with the firmware. The goal is to compete with the Apple iPhone and iPad with improved Android smartphones and tablets. Derived from the OS X operating system used on Apple computers, the iOS is a UNIX mobile operating system used on iPhone and iPad devices.

The Chrome OS has been developed from a version of Ubuntu-Linux and has been designed and coded by Google. The target audience for Chrome is computer users spending most of their time on the Internet. It's functionality has Internet applications and web apps executing through a web browser. Google executives have suggested that over time the two systems will likely converge. However, the two operating systems have been built from different code bases. Despite the growing convergence of the devices, this will issue will become more problematic as new hardware is brought to market. At the current time, Google Chrome is clearly a work in progress.

UNIX and Linux Training by SYS-ED

SYS-ED knows UNIX and Linux. And equally as important, we know how to teach UNIX and Linux. Our consultants were among the original cadre of UNIX proponents and practitioners.2  We developed and taught C programs to a generation of programmers, were involved with the superset of functions which became C++, and wrote handouts and instructor guides for X Windows and Motif interfaces.

SYS-ED teaches:

  • Industry standard Solaris and Linux curriculum.
  • Migration from a Microsoft operating system and UNIX operating systems to Linux.
  • Scripting in UNIX- and Linux- variant platforms.
  • UNIX and Linux programming and utilities courses for application developers: C, Bourne Shell, and Korn Shell.
  • Oracle database, WebLogic Server, and Java application development on UNIX-Solaris and Linux-variant operating systems.
  • DB2 and WebSphere MQ on both UNIX- and Linux-variant base operating system platforms in IBM mainframe and distributed environments.
  • Guidelines for service oriented architecture on the IBM mainframe, Oracle, and MS .NET platforms.

In UNIX and Linux courses, students learn by doing: installation, configuration, administration, problem resolution, and scripting. After a course is over, students are welcome to ask questions which come up back on the job. Specialized courses and integrated programs can be conducted on-site at the client location.

New courses are being developed for teaching Linux as a base platform and component in virtualization and cloud computing infrastructure.

Courseware Superior by Design

Reference material which explains and demonstrates is fundamental to an effective training experience. The consensus is that the documentation provided with open source software does not provide quality and completeness comparable to commercial software. In order to address this shortcoming and the scarcity of up to date industry standard UNIX and Linux textbooks. Computer Education Technique reviews information in the public domain distributed by purveyors of open source software, international standards committees, and software companies. We perform our own independent analysis of white papers, benchmarks, and software updates. Subject matter is then selectively incorporated into our student handouts. 3

In conjunction with presenting an instructor-led course at the client location, courseware is organized for subsequent use in a web-based infrastructure and delivery medium.

Qualifying a Training Assignment

SYS-ED will not accept a UNIX or Linux training assignment without a consultation with the prospective client organization. We review the background of the employees to be trained, operating environment, documented standards, and project specifications, and then use that information to select the code snippets, examples, skeleton programs, and hands-on exercises. We then prepare a training strategy: lesson plan, modular courseware, training aids, and validation assessment. And when not confident that a superior training outcome can be provided, SYS-ED will politely turn down an assignment.

Courseware for Teaching

The Computer Education Techniques courseware used in SYS-ED courses consists of modular extensible student handouts, training aids, and industry-specific examples and exercises. At the client discretion an industry standard textbook and accompanying presentation slides can be utilized. The CETi knowledge base aggregates and analyzes information in the public domain. It also is a service for reviewing and answering questions. Content selectively is added to courseware.

Web-based Training Services
UNIX - Solaris
UNIX Programming

Red Hat Linux
SUSE Linux
Ubuntu Linux
Google Application Development
SYS-ED/New York Schedule and Content Delivery Selection
Web-based Training Services Courseware as Learning Center Selection of Delivery Medium

Migration from UNIX to the Linux-variant Operating Systems

In relation to a UNIX-variant operating system, Linux can provide a lower total cost of ownership and better return on investment. Migration to Linux typically allows for operation with fewer CPUs and results in annual savings on software database licenses. There are Linux-variants which can be used on the same hardware platform as an existing UNIX base operating system. This can be a significant advantage when managing virtualization and logical partitioning across both UNIX and Linux operating system platforms. Remaining on a hardware platform also removes issues associated with endianness.


Most UNIX operating systems are a complete operating system with the code, applications, and utilities provided by a single source or vendor; there is a commercial license with contractual requirements, charges, and restrictions. There are indications that changes may be occurring with the UNIX software model; OpenSolaris UNIX is available free of charge. The Open Group manages the UNIX trademark licensing program.

IBM AIX, Hewlett-Packard HP-UX, and Oracle Sun Solaris are the leading UNIX operating systems; each has hardware platforms. IBM and Oracle UNIX operating systems were designed initially to be integrated with product line strategies. There are significant differences in the kernel, configuration, process management, virtualization, performance, and tuning. From an operational standpoint, there can be a degree of hardware vendor lock-in associated with the UNIX operating system.

A firewall is not a standard inclusion in the UNIX operating system; it may be necessary to purchase third party software. Generic UNIX tools used for backing up the system portion of data will not work on Linux distributions. UNIX and Linux have different sets of tools for backing up data to tape and other backup media. Although there are common tools used in both operating systems, problems have been reported when using generic UNIX/Linux utilities such as tar and cpio between different platforms. Both UNIX and Linux provide a system initialization script; however, they are located in different directories.


The Linux kernel and operating system has been built upon and coded from the UNIX architecture and code base. It was written by Linus Torvalds with assistance from a dispersed team of programmers. Developed based upon open source principles, Linux provides modularity and independence from a commercial software vendor for an organizational enterprise to establish and manage its own operating system deployment and patches.

Linux-variant Operating System

Linux distributions include a: 1- GUI: graphical user interface system 2- GNU utilities cp, mv, ls, date, bash, etc. 3- Installation and management tools 4- GNU c/c++ compilers 5- Editors (vi) 6- A variety of applications such as Firefox web browser and OpenOffice suite. Linux is available for download free of charge; it also is selectively redistributed under a GNU: General Public License. Linux comes with a open source netfilter/iptables based firewall tool for protecting a server and desktop. The independence of the Linux kernel and its inclusion in the GNU General Public License provides flexibility and alternative Linux-variant base operating system choices for implementation into an existing software infrastructure. Linux can be installed on x-86 desktop and servers, HP Itanium, X64 AMD Opteron-based systems, Sun Ultra SPARC, and IBM Power and mainframe systems.

There is significant free and commercial fee-based community support for the leading Linux-variant distributions: Red Hat and Fedora Linux, SUSE Linux - Attachmate/Novell, Ubuntu Linux - Canonical, and Android mobile device operating system - Google.


Where Can I Find Quality UNIX and Linux Training?

The typical comments were:

1. That is extremely difficult to find UNIX and Linux training which addresses the multi-functional requirements of business professionals, webmasters, and information technology professionals; UNIX - Solaris, Linux, and Google apps / Android, training options are limited.

UNIX and Linux Training Services in New York

Portfolio of UNIX and Linux Clients


UNIX and Linux Training Services in New York

New York State Department
of Education Standards

2.That there is a scarcity of fast-track UNIX and Linux courses, 5 days or fewer in duration, geared to corporations and their employees, which can be tailored to a specific UNIX- and Linux- variant.
3.That a high percentage of UNIX and Linux courses are cancelled.
4.That travel costs and living expenses in a majority of situations are a significant constraint when it comes to attending a UNIX- or Linux-variant course.
5. That it is important to have a resource for asking UNIX- and Linux- variant questions once the training is complete.
Our response to these questions:
UNIX Training Services in New York Yes, SYS-ED offers multiple level of UNIX and Linux training: fundamentals, installation and support, network administration, scripting and shell programming and application development.
UNIX Training Services in New York Yes, SYS-ED has taught UNIX and Linux since their initial releases and offers integrated fast-track Linux- and UNIX-variant training programs.
UNIX Training Services in New York Yes, we have the flexibility and resources to conduct personalized training for small groups. We very rarely cancel courses.
UNIX Training Services in New York UNIX- and Linux-variant courses are available in multiple formats: classroom, distance-learning, and blended web-based delivery.
UNIX Training Services in New York Upon completion of a SYS-ED course, our staff is available to answer UNIX and Linux questions.
SYS-ED has been conducting courses in the public domain since 1980; however, there have been changes in the laws and regulations governing computer training in the state of New York. The schedule on our websites reflects a projected time frame for licensure with the New York State Department of Education - Bureau of Proprietary School Supervision and submission and approval of curriculum. It will be updated quarterly.


News for Immediate Release!

UNIX and Linux Training Programs Longstanding Consultancy Experience in Information Technology

Longstanding Consultancy Experience
in Information Technology

SYS-EDís UNIX and Linux training programs provide the knowledge and skillset to perform specific tasks.

These UNIX and Linux training programs have been designed to provide:

UNIX Training Services in New York Business professionals with the framework and experience to utilize the open source alternatives to Microsoft Office: StarOffice, OpenOffice, and Google Apps.
UNIX Training Services in New York Support personnel with the knowledge and skillset to perform administrative tasks on a UNIX- and Linux- variant network and code and debug scripts with the popular shells.
UNIX Training Services in New York Application developers with the fundamental skills and experience to develop UNIX and Linux applications with C/C++ and API's for mobile devices.

The instruction utilizes the full complement of training methodologies to address the client's operational objectives, the geographic location of the audience, as well as scheduling and class size requirements.

UNIX Training Programs and Boot Camps

SYS-ED offers industry standard UNIX- and Linux- variant training programs. A base program training program can be augmented with subject matter from the course search engine. The training programs reflect an independent assessment of purveyors of open source software, software company, and emerging trends.

UNIX and Linux - Fundamentals

Emerging Trends

UNIX Operations and Network Administration - Solaris
UNIX: Fundamentals - Level 1 UNIX: Fundamentals - Level 2 UNIX- and Linux- variants Solaris 11 Operating System Solaris: System Administration
Linux: Installation, Configuration, and Support UNIX: Shell Programming Migration: Oracle Solaris to Red Hat Linux Solaris: Network Administration Solaris 11: New Features
Internetworking Microsoft, Linux, and UNIX

UNIX and Linux Distance-learning Training Services


UNIX and Linux Scripting and Programming UNIX Application Development
Perl Programming Perl Database and Programming UNIX for Application Developers
- Level 1
UNIX for Application Developers
- Level 2
UNIX Environment: C Programming C++ Programming Perl Programming Perl Programming - Advanced
C++ Programming and Design - Advanced UNIX, Linux, and Win32 Networks:
Perl Programming
Apache Web Server:
Installation and Administration
UNIX Server Administration
Perl Programming - Advanced C Programming - Advanced UNIX and Linux: Programming Korn Shell Programming: UNIX

Red Hat Linux SUSE Linux Ubuntu Linux
Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux System Administration SUSE Linux Fundamentals SUSE Linux Enterprise: Fundamentals Ubuntu Linux Desktop for Users Ubuntu Linux Desktop Support
Red Hat Linux Network Administration Fedora Linux: Introduction SUSE Linux Administration SUSE Linux Enterprise: Administration Linux Installation,
Configuration, and Support
Ubuntu Linux Server
Red Hat Linux Essentials Red Hat Linux Enterprise Deployment and Systems Management SUSE Linux Administration - Advanced SUSE Linux Troubleshooting UNIX, Linux, and MS Windows:
Diagnostics and Tuning
Linux TCP/IP Networking Services
Red Hat Linux Enterprise System Monitoring and Performance Tuning Red Hat Linux Networking
and Security Administration
Linux Performance and Tuning Linux Server Management UNIX and Linux: Security UNIX and Linux: Optimization and Troubleshooting
MS SharePoint 2010: Architecture, Design, and Implementation MS SharePoint Server 2010: Administration MS Windows Server 2012: Installation and Configuration MS Windows Server 2012: Administration MS Windows Server 2008: Active Directory Domain Services MS Windows Server 2008: Administration

The shaded gray cells indicates: 1- Interrelated areas of networking where Linux-variant desktop and web servers are being integrated into Microsoft Active Directory infrastructures. 2- Linux server management and performance optimization courses which apply both to Linux-variants and the SUSE and Ubuntu operating system. 3- Courses for extending industry standard training programs.

UNIX and Linux Training Services

UNIX and Linux Courses
SYS-ED's UNIX and Linux courses are tough, but they're worth it. Our challenging "hands-on" UNIX and Linux training provides a foundation and framework for Fortune 1000 companies, government municipalities, healthcare providers, software houses, and consulting companies to meet their own UNIX and Linux staffing requirements and acquire specialized UNIX and Linux skillsets. 1

SYS-ED's UNIX and Linux courseware is highly respected. We draw upon our extensive library of courseware, sample programs and case studies to explain, demonstrate, and teach the real-world UNIX and Linux. Our UNIX and Linux curricula are updated to include both industry standard content and the new features and facilities. We have the capability to provide tailored workshops to a client-specific UNIX and Linux platform: AIX, Solaris, Red Hat, Fedora, SUSE, and Ubuntu.

Teaching is Our Business
Most computer training companies are divisions of large software or consulting companies. Not SYS-ED. Our only goal is to provide top-quality computer training for highly motivated professionals-no more and no less. Because we're independent, we're free to concentrate on teaching - and since 1980 we have been doing it very well.

Our Teachers Know How to Teach
SYS-ED instructors combine teaching skills with broad practical experience as consultants. Our instructors average 30 years of experience in the UNIX and Linux environments - operating system, network administration, and programming. And they know how to teach it. We teach not only "how to", but "why", building a solid foundation in fundamentals and insights into advanced materials. After a course, they're available to answer questions.

Enrollment - SYS-ED UNIX and Linux Courses are Not for Everyone
No one is allowed to enroll in a SYS-ED UNIX and Linux course, without a consultation with our Director of Education. We review the operational objectives and project specifications for the organization evaluating whether to send its employee for the training. The employee is Only allowed to register if they have the background corresponding to the UNIX- and Linux-variant learning path: UNIX, Solaris, and Linux job function learning path.

UNIX and Linux Training Distance-learning or at Your Office
SYS-ED UNIX and Linux courses are provided over the Internet through a distance-learning delivery medium or classroom instruction on-site at the client location. Client location courses can include the identical workshops, case studies, and hands-on approach as the distance-learning service offered through the SYS-ED schedule.

Technology Exchange Websites

SYS-ED's websites compile, organize, and present software specific and established operational categorizations of information technology. They provide a framework for assessing knowledge transfer: web-based training, classroom instruction, courseware, learning paths, and validation assessment.


Footnote 1:
Source - Yankee Group Global Server Operating System Reliability Surveys.

Footnote 2:
David Silverberg and David Shapiro were both among the first wave of technologist and programmers who evaluated the UNIX operating system and designed and coded C programs. Dave Silverberg was coding programs and reviewing source code and later taught classes at Bell Laboratories. David Shapiro, in conjunction with classmates at Union College and Cornell University, became familiar with the capabilities and long term potential of low level programming languages, and early versions of both UNIX and BASIC.

Footnote 3:
SYS-EDís core UNIX curriculum has been submitted to the New York State Department of Education - Bureau of Proprietary School Supervision for review.